Background: Low back pain is one of the most common and disabling health problems in Canada and internationally. In most cases, low back pain is a benign, self-limiting condition that can be managed with little diagnostic investigation or treatment. Yet contrary to clinical practice guideline recommendations, diagnostic imaging (here meaning X-ray, MRI, CT) is commonly used in the assessment of low back pain. Diagnostic imaging is of limited value in most cases, exposing patients to unnecessary radiation and leading to increased health services use and worse patient health outcomes. The Choosing Wisely campaign has highlighted the need to reduce diagnostic imaging for low back pain; however, no clinical decision rules are available.
Methods: This project will develop a clinical decision support tool for appropriate use of diagnostic imaging for patients with low back pain in the emergency department. We will conduct a prospective cohort study at five Canadian emergency departments. The study will follow recommendations for prediction model development and testing. The study population will be 4000 patients presenting to the emergency department with low back pain. We will assess potential clinical indications of emergent-cause (i.e., red flag items), including clinical characteristics and past history. Our outcome, emergent-cause for low back pain such as fracture, cancer, infection, or cauda equina syndrome, will be assessed at discharge and at 1-, 3-, and 12-month follow-up periods using information from self-report and health administrative data. We will construct and assess the performance of a multivariable prediction model that has strong measurement properties, presented as a clinical decision support tool acceptable to knowledge users.
Discussion: Practice guidelines describe red flags for which diagnostic imaging is likely appropriate. However, recommendations across guidelines are discordant, and few studies have evaluated these criteria to determine which characteristics best predict emergent etiology that warrant diagnostic imaging. A clinical decision support tool, that recommends diagnostic imaging where appropriate, has the potential to improve clinical care and patient outcomes and reduce costs associated with managing low back pain patients.
Authors: Jill A. Hayden, Rachel Ogilvie, Samuel Alan Stewart, Simon French, Samuel Campbell, Kirk Magee, Patrick Slipp, George Wells & Ian Stiell
Jill Hayden - firstname.lastname@example.org